Published Materials

Below is a list of published journal articles, books (including book chapters and proceedings) and reports that focus on the tools developed by the Washington Group. This WG Published Materials list is updated periodically.

If you are aware of any published research that uses WG questions please let us know by contacting the WG Secretariat at:  


  1. Groce N, Mont D. 2017  Counting Disability: Emerging Consensus on the Washington Group Questionnaire. Lancet Global Health. July, 2017DOI:

  2. Murphy R, Jolley E, Lynch P, Mbukwa J, Bechange S, Gladstone Mj, Schmidte. Estimated prevalence of disability and developmental delay among preschool children in rural Malawi: Findings from “Tikule Limodzi,” a cross‐sectional survey. Wiley Online Library, January 2020. Available at

  3. Mohanty S, Jolley E, Mohanty Rn, Buttan S And Schmidt E. Integrating Geospatial Data and Measures of Disability and Wealth to Assess Inequalities in an Eye Health Survey: An Example from the Indian Sunderbans. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019; 16: 4869. 
  4. Groce N. Comparing the Washington Group Questions and the Model Disability Survey: A Review of Methodological Approaches to Disability Data Collection. Disability and Internaitonal Development. 2019:30:2::16-22. 
  5. Loeb M, Mont D, Cappa C, De Palma E,  adans J, Crialesi R. The Development and Testing of a Module on Child Functioning for Identifying Children with Disabilities on Surveys, I: Background. Disability and Health Journal, 2018, 11: 495-501.
  6. Massey M. The Role of Cognitive Interviewing Methods in the Development of Questions to Identify Children with Disabilities, II: Question Evaluation. Disability and Health Journal, 2018, 11: 502-509.
  7. Cappa C, Mont M, Loeb M, Misunas C, Madans J, Comic T, de Castro F and Taua M. The Development and Testing of a Module on Child Functioning for Identifying Children with Disabilities in Surveys, III: Field testing. Disability and Health Journal, 2018, 11: 510-518.
  8. Loeb M, Cappa C, Crialesi R, De Palma E. Measuring Child Functioning: the UNICEF/Washington Group Module. Salud Publica de Mexico, 2017, 59(4): 485-7.
  9. Madans J, Loeb M, Eide A. Measuring Disability and Inclusion: Disaggregating outcome indicators by disability status. Disability and the Global South, 2017, 4(1): 1164-79.
  10. Mactaggart J, Kuper H, Murthy Gvs, Oye J, and Polack S. "Measuring disability in population based surveys: the interrelationship between clinical impairments and reported functional limitations in Cameroon and India." PloS one 11, no. 10 (2016).
  11. Mactaggart I, Cappa C, Kuper H, Loeb M, Polack S. Field testing a draft version of the UNICEF/Washington Group Module on Child Functioning and Disability. Background, Methodology and Preliminary Findings from Cameroon and India. ALTER, European Journal of Disability Research, 2016; 10(4):345-60.
  12. Madans Jh, Mont D, Loeb M. A Comment on Developing Statistical Measures of Disability. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 65; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010065
  13. Thivillier P, Jolley E, Smith F, Haslam D. Disability and Agenda 2030: Piloting the Washington Group Short Set of Questions in Routine Data Systems for Measuring the Inclusion of People with Disabilities. Journal for Disability and International Development, 2016; 2:21-27. Available online at:
  14. Loeb M. Disability Statistics: and integral but missing (and misunderstood) component of development work. NJHR, 2013; 31(3):306–24
  15. Madans Jh, Loeb Me. Methods to Improve International Comparability of Census and Survey Measures of Disability. Disability & Rehabilitation, 2013; 35(13):1070-3
  16. Loeb M. A White Paper on Disability Measurement. Journal for Disability and International Development, 2012; 1:4-11. Available online at:
  17. Mont D And Nguyen Vc. "Disability and poverty in Vietnam." The World Bank Economic Review 25, no. 2 (2011): 323-359.
  18. Madans Jh, Loeb Me, Altman Ba. Measuring Disability and Monitoring the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: the work of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics. BMC Public Health, 2011; 11(Suppl 4):S44.
  19. Mont D, Loeb M. A Functional Approach to Assessing the Impact of Health Interventions on People with Disabilities, ALTER, European Journal of Disability Research, 2010; 4(3):159-73.


  1. Mitra S. Disability, health and human development. Springer Nature, 2017. 
  2. Eide Ah, Loeb M. Counting disabled people: Historical perspectives and the challenges of disability statistics. In: Disability in the Global South: The Critical Handbook. K. Soldatic and S. Grech (eds). Springer, International Perspectives on Social Policy, Administration, and Practice, Switzerland, 2016.
  3. Altman B. (ed.) International Measurement of Disability: Purpose, Method and Application – The work of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics. Springer, Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 61, 2016.
  4. Loeb M, Madans J, Weeks J, Miller K, Dahlhamer J, Golden C. Disability and Participation: Assessing Employment and Education Outcomes in the National Health Interview Survey (2010), In: Disability and Intersecting Statuses. SN Barnartt & BM Altman (eds). Research in Social Science and Disability, 7:171-88. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. UK, 2013.
  5. Maitland A, Miller K, Loeb M, Madans J. The Development and Evaluation of Disability Measures Using a Mixed-Method Approach; Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Health Survey Research Methods; Survey Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Chicago, April 8-11, 2011. Available online at:


  1. Massey M, et al. (2014), Analysis of Cognitive Interview Testing of Child Disability Questions in Five Countries, NCHS, available at
  2. Massey M, et al. (2015), Analysis of Cognitive Testing of Child Disability Questions: Parent-Proxy vs. Teen Self-Report, NCHS, available at


  1. Sightsavers: Ghana Disability Data Disaggregation Pilot Project: Results of Integrating Disability into Routine Data Collection Systems. 2016 - 2018
  2. Sightsavers: Political participation in West Africa: The effective participation of men and women with disabilities in political life
  3. Sightsavers: Inclusive eye health in Bhopal: Assessing characteristics of patients and measuring equity of access to eye health services
  4. Sightsavers: Knowledge, attitudes and practices in eye health and disability in Sierra Leone – Study Report 2014

You are currently offline. Some pages or content may fail to load.