Published Materials

Below is a list of published journal articles, books (including book chapters and proceedings) and reports that focus on the tools developed by the Washington Group. This WG Published Materials list is updated periodically.

If you are aware of any published research that uses WG questions please let us know by contacting the WG Secretariat at:  




  1. Amilon, A., Hansen, K.M., Kjær, A.A., & Steffensen, T. (2021). Estimating disability prevalence and disability-related inequalities: Does the choice of measure matter? Social Science & Medicine,  272.
  2. Ng, K., Asunta, P., Leppä, N., & Rintala, P. (2020). Intra-rater test-retest reliability of a modified child functioning module, self-report version. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 1–11.
  3. Zia, N., Loeb, M., Kajungu, D., Galiwango, E., Diener-West, M., Wegener, S., … Bachani, A. M. (2020). Adaptation and validation of UNICEF/Washington group child functioning module at the Iganga-Mayuge health and demographic surveillance site in Uganda. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1–13.
  4. Casebolt, M. T. (2020). Availability and quality of global disability data: A commentary on the Demographic and Health Surveys. Disability and Health Journal, (xxxx), 100972.
  5. Maddocks, S. T., Mthethwa, L., & Chetty, V. (2020). Child functioning and disability in children living with human immunodeficiency virus in a semi-rural healthcare setting in South Africa. African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 12(1), 1–8.
  6. Bourke, J. A., Nichols-Dunsmuir, A., Begg, A., Dong, H., & Schluter, P. J. (2020). Measuring disability: An agreement study between two disability measures. Disability and Health Journal, (xxxx), 100995.
  7. Harrison, J. A. K., Thomson, R., Banda, H. T., Mbera, G. B., Gregorius, S., Stenberg, B., & Marshall, T. (2020). Access to health care for people with disabilities in rural Malawi: What are the barriers? BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1–17.
  8. Jolley, E., Buttan, S., Engels, T., Gillani, M., Jadoon, M. Z., Kabona, G., … Schmidt, E. (2020). Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Coverage of Cataract Surgical Services: Associations with Sex, Disability, and Economic Status in Five Diverse Sites. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 27(6), 429–437.
  9. Pinilla-Roncancio, M., Mactaggart, I., Kuper, H., Dionicio, C., Naber, J., Murthy, G. V. S., & Polack, S. (2020). Multidimensional poverty and disability: A case control study in India, Cameroon, and Guatemala. SSM - Population Health, 11.
  10. Zia, N., Bachani, A. M., Kajungu, D., Galiwango, E., Loeb, M., Diener-west, M., … Hyder, A. A. (2020). Measuring child functioning : Assessing correlation and agreement between caregiver and child responses at the Iganga-Mayuge health and demographic surveillance site in Uganda. Disability and Health Journal, (xxxx), 101022.
  11. Murphy, R., Jolley, E., Lynch, P., Mankhwazi, M., Mbukwa, J., Bechange, S., … Schmidt, E. (2020). Estimated prevalence of disability and developmental delay among preschool children in rural Malawi: Findings from “Tikule Limodzi,” a cross-sectional survey. Child: Care, Health and Development, 46(2), 187–194.
  12. Hajjioui, A., Abda, N., Guenouni, R., Nejjari, C., & Fourtassi, M. (2019). Prevalence of disability in Morocco: Results from a large-scale national survey. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 51(10), 805–812.
  13. Bollier, AM., King, T., Shakespeare, T., Hocking, J., Kavanagh, A. (2019). Sexual functioning in men with and without disabilities: Findings from a representative sample of Australian men. J of Sexual Medicine, 16:1749-1757.
  14. Bollier AM., King, T., Austin, SB., Shakespeare T., Spittal M., Kavanagh, A. (2019). Does sexual orientation vary between disabled and non-disabled men? Findings from a population-based study of men in Australia, Disability & Society.
  15. King, TL., Shields, M., Shakespeare, T., Milner, A., & Kavanagh, A. (2019). An intersectional approach to understandings of mental health inequalities among men with disability. SSM - Population Health, (December 2018), 100464.
  16. King, T. L., Shields, M., Milner, A., Vaughan, C., Shakespeare, T., Currier, D., & Kavanagh, A. (2019, September 19). Conformity to masculine norms: Differences between men with and without a disability. Psychology of Men & Masculinities. Advance online publication.
  17. Mörchen, M., Zambrano, O., Páez, A., Salgado, P., Penniecook, J., von Lindau, A. B., & Lewis, D. (2019). Disability-disaggregated data collection: Hospital-based application of the Washington group questions in an eye hospital in paraguay. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(17).
  18. Maart, S., Amosun, S., Jelsma, J., Sciences, R., Town, C., Africa, S., & Maart, S. (2019). Disability prevalence-context matters : A descriptive community-based survey Research setting. African Journal of Disability, 1–8.
  19. Mopari, R., Garg, B., Puliyel, J., & Varughese, S. (2019). Measuring disability in an urban slum community in India using the Washington Group questionnaire. Disability and Health Journal, 12(2), 263–268.
  20. Lauer, E. A., Henly, M., & Coleman, R. (2019). Comparing estimates of disability prevalence using federal and international disability measures in national surveillance. Disability and Health Journal, 12(2), 195–202.
  21. Sprunt, B., McPake, B., & Marella, M. (2019). The UNICEF/Washington group child functioning module—accuracy, inter-rater reliability and cut-off level for disability disaggregation of fiji’s education management information system. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(5).
  22. Mohanty, S., Jolley, E., Mohanty, R. N., Buttan, S., & Schmidt, E. (2019). Integrating geospatial data and measures of disability and wealth to assess inequalities in an eye health survey: An example from the Indian sunderbans. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(23), 2014–2019.
  23. Groce N. (2019). Comparing the Washington Group Questions and the Model Disability Survey: A Review of Methodological Approaches to Disability Data Collection. Disability and International Development, 30(2):16-22. 
  24. Simo Fotso A., Duthé G., Odimegwu C. (2019). A comparative analysis of disability measures in Cameroonian surveys. Popul Health Metr., Dec 5;17(1):16. doi: 10.1186/s12963-019-0198-4. PMID: 31805957; PMCID: PMC6896774.
  25. Adans J., Cappa C., Crialesi R., De Palma E., Loeb M., Mont D. (2018). The Development and Testing of a Module on Child Functioning for Identifying Children with Disabilities on Surveys, I: Background. Disability and Health Journal, 11: 495-501.
  26. Massey, M. (2018). The Role of Cognitive Interviewing Methods in the Development of Questions to Identify Children with Disabilities, II: Question Evaluation. Disability and Health Journal, 11: 502-509.
  27. Cappa C., Comic T., de Castro F., Loeb M., Madans J., Misunas C., Mont M., and Taua M. (2018). The Development and Testing of a Module on Child Functioning for Identifying Children with Disabilities in Surveys, III: Field testing. Disability and Health Journal, 11: 510-518.
  28. Devries, K., Kuper, H., Knight, L., Allen, E., Kyegombe, N., Banks, L. M., … Naker, D. (2018). Reducing Physical Violence Toward Primary School Students With Disabilities. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62(3), 303–310.
  29. Abimanyi-Ochom, J., Mannan, H., Groce, N. E., & McVeigh, J. (2017). HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of persons with and without disabilities from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011: Differential access to HIV/AIDS information and services. PLoS ONE, 12(4), 1–20.
  30. Groce, N. E., & Mont, D. (2017). Counting disability: emerging consensus on the Washington Group questionnaire. The Lancet Global Health, 5(7), e649–e650.
  31. Loeb, M., Cappa, C., Crialesi, R., & de Palma, E. (2017). Measuring child functioning: The Unicef/ Washington Group Module. Salud Publica de Mexico, 59(4), 485–487.
  32. Eide A., Loeb M., Madans J. (2017). Measuring Disability and Inclusion: Disaggregating outcome indicators by disability status. Disability and the Global South, 4(1): 1164-79.
  33. Tareque, M. I., Tiedt, A. D., Islam, T. M., Begum, S., & Saito, Y. (2017). Gender differences in functional disability and self-care among seniors in Bangladesh. BMC Geriatrics, 17(1), 1–13.
  34. Oye, J., Mactaggart, I., Polack, S., Schmidt, E., Tamo, V., Okwen, M., & Kuper, H. (2017). Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 24(6), 394–400.
  35. Mactaggart, I., Kuper, H., Murthy, G. V. S., Oye, J., & Polack, S. (2016). Measuring disability in population based surveys: The interrelationship between clinical impairments and reported functional limitations in Cameroon and India. PLoS ONE, 11(10), 1–19.
  36. Mactaggart, I., Cappa, C., Kuper, H., Loeb, M., & Polack, S. (2016). Test de la version provisoire du Module UNICEF/Washington Group sur le fonctionnement et le handicap des enfants. Contexte, méthodologie et premiers résultats au Cameroun et en Inde. Alter, 10(4), 345–360.
  37. Loeb M. Madans J., Mont D. (2016). A Comment on Developing Statistical Measures of Disability. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 13, 65; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010065
  38. Haslam D., Jolley E., Smith F., Thivillier P. (2016). Disability and Agenda 2030: Piloting the Washington Group Short Set of Questions in Routine Data Systems for Measuring the Inclusion of People with Disabilities. Journal for Disability and International Development, 2:21-27.
  39. Wandera, S. O., Ntozi, J., & Kwagala, B. (2014). Prevalence and correlates of disability among older ugandans: Evidence from the uganda national household survey. Global Health Action, 7(1).
  40. Bachani, A. M., Galiwango, E., Kadobera, D., Bentley, J. A., Bishai, D., Wegener, S., & Hyder, A. A. (2014). A new screening instrument for disability in low-income and middle-income settings: Application at the Iganga-Mayuge Demographic Surveillance System (IM-DSS), Uganda. BMJ Open, 4(12), 1–8.
  41. Ayazi, T., Lien, L., Eide, A. H., Jenkins, R., Albino, R. A., & Hauff, E. (2013). Disability associated with exposure to traumatic events: Results from a cross-sectional community survey in South Sudan. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1.
  42. Loeb, M. (2013). Disability statistics: an integral but missing (and misunderstood) component of development work. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 31(3), 306–324. Nr 03 - 2013 - Nordic Journal of Human Rights - Idunn
  43. Madans, J. H., & Loeb, M. (2013). Methods to improve international comparability of census and survey measures of disability. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35(13), 1070–1073.
  44. Mont, D., & Cuong, N. V. (2011). Disability and poverty in Vietnam. World Bank Economic Review, 25(2), 323–359.
  45. Madans, J. H., Loeb, M. E., & Altman, B. M. (2011). Measuring disability and monitoring the un Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: The work of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics. BMC Public Health, 11(SUPPL. 4), 20782.
  46. Mont, D., & Loeb, M. (2010). A functional approach to assessing the impact of health interventions on people with disabilities. Alter, 4(3), 159–173.



  1. ESCWA. (2020). ESCWA Disability Framework: 115 indicators to bridge the gap between policy and statistics. ESCWA Disability Framework: 115 indicators to bridge the gap between policy and statistics (
  2. Save the Children. (2020). Protect a Generation: The Impact of COVID-19 on Children’s Lives. Save the Children International, 3732267(3732267), 1–45. Protect a Generation: The impact of COVID-19 on children's lives | Resource Centre (
  3. Save the Children. (2020). The Hidden Impact of Covid-19 on Children: A Global Research SeriesThe Hidden Impact of Covid-19 on Children: A Global Research Series | Resource Centre (
  4. ECLAC. (2019). Aspectos conceptuales de los censos de población y vivienda: desafíos para la definición de contenidos incluyentes en la ronda 2020. Aspectos conceptuales de los censos de población y vivienda: desafíos para la definición de contenidos incluyentes en la ronda 2020 (
  5. ESCWA. (2018). Regional Guidebook to Improve Disability Data Collection and Analysis in the Arab countries Implementing the Washington Group Questions on Functioning, 1–69. Regional Guidebook to Improve Disability Data Collection and Analysis in the Arab Countries (
  6. Mitra, S. (2018). Disability, Health and Human Development / by Sophie Mitra. (1st ed. 2018. ed., Palgrave Studies in Disability and International Development).
  7. Eide, Arne H, & Loeb, Mitchell. (2016). Counting Disabled People: Historical Perspectives and the Challenges of Disability Statistics. In Disability in the Global South (International Perspectives on Social Policy, Administration, and Practice, pp. 51-68). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
  8. Altman, & Altman, Barbara Mandell. (2016). International measurement of disability : Purpose, method and application, the work of the Washington Group / Barbara M. Altman, editor. (Social indicators research series ; v. 61).
  9. Loeb, Mitchell, Madans, Jennifer, Weeks, Julie, Miller, Kristen, Dahlhamer, James, & Golden, Cordell. (2013). Disability and participation: Assessing employment and education outcomes in the National Health Interview Survey (2010) Disability and Intersecting Statuses (Vol. 7, pp. 171-188). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  10. Loeb M., Madans J., Maitland A., Miller K. (2011) The Development and Evaluation of Disability Measures Using a Mixed-Method Approach; Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Health Survey Research Methods; Survey Research Laboratory.


  1. Massey M., Scanlon P., Lessem S., Cortes L., Villarroel M., Salvaggio M. (2015). Analysis of Cognitive Testing of Child Disability Questions: Parent-Proxy vs. Teen Self-Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  2. Massey, M., Chepp, V., Zablotsky, B., & Creamer, L. (2014). Analysis of Cognitive Interview Testing of Child Disability Questions in Five Countries. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1–49.


  1. United Nations Humanitarian Needs Assessment Programme - Syria. (2021). Disability in Syria: Investigation on the intersectional impacts of gender, age and a decade of conflict on persons with disabilities. 
  2. CBM. (2020). Disability Data advocacy toolkit. DisabilityData_advocacytoolkit_accessible.pdf (
  3. Development Initiatives. (2020). Generating disability statistics - Models of disability measurement, history of disability statistics and the Washington Group Questions background paper. Generating disability statistics - Development Initiatives (
  4. DANE. (2020). Guía para la inclusión del enfoque diferencial e interseccionaldocumento-guia-inclusion-enfoque-diferencia-interseccional-SEN.pdf (
  5. FCDO. (2020). FCDO disability update Progress against DFID ’ s strategy for Disability Inclusive Development. FCDO disability update: Progress against DFID’s strategy for Disability Inclusive Development (
  6. Bureau, U. S. C. (2020). Africa Aging : 2020Africa Aging: 2020 (
  7. Sightsavers. (2020). Rising Voices. Ufahamu: A Journal of African Studies, 11(3).
  8. UNESCO. (2020). Global Education Monitor Report. Inclusion and education: all means all. Global education monitoring report, 2020: Inclusion and education: all means all - UNESCO Digital Library
  9. Sightsavers. (2018). Ghana Disability Data Disaggregation Pilot Project : Results of Integrating Disability into Routine Data. (December), 1–79. Ghana-Disability-Data-Disaggregation-Pilot-Project-_December_2018_FINAL_PDF.pdf (
  10. Sightsavers. (2018). The participation of men and women with disabilities in political life in Cameroon: Baseline Report. (May 2018), 1–37.
  11. Sightsavers. (2018). The participation of men and women with disabilities in political life in Senegal: Baseline report. (May 2018), 1–40.
  12. Sightsavers. (2017). Inclusive eye health in Bhopal , India : Assessing characteristics of patients and measuring equity of access to eye health services , 2014-2017 . A summary report of data collected in the Madhya Pradesh Urban Eye Health Project – Bhopal , India July 2018. (July 2018), 2014–2017.
  13. Sightsavers. (2014). Knowledge , attitudes and practices in eye health and disability in Sierra Leone Study Report 2014.